Risk Factors for Congenital Hearing Loss
- Family history of permanent hearing loss in childhood
- Maternal infections during pregnancy or delivery (Toxoplasmosis , Syphilis, HIV, Hepatitis B, Rubella , CMV, Herpes simplex, and others)
- Physical problems of the head, face, ears, or neck (cleft lip/palate, ear pits/tags, atresia, and others)
- Ototoxic medications given in the neonatal period
- Syndrome associated with hearing loss (Pendred, Usher, Waardenburg, neurofibromatosis)
- Admission to a neonatal intensive care unit greater than 5 days
- Prematurity (< 37 weeks)
- 3 weeks: A new born should have a hearing screening before leaving the hospital or within the first three weeks of life.
- 3 months: If the child did not pass the initial hearing screening steps should be taken with the audiologist and pediatrician to make sure any permanent hearing loss is identified by this time.
- 6 months: Intervention should start as soon as possible if a permanent hearing loss is found. Treatment for hearing loss can be most effective if it’s started before a child is 6 months old.
- Parent/caregiver concern regarding hearing
- Delays in speech/language development
- Recurrent middle ear infections or one episode lasting < 3 months
- Head trauma associated with loss of consciousness or skull fracture
- Bacterial meningitis and other infections (mumps, encephalitis, viral labyrinthitis)
- Exposure to potentially damaging noise levels
- Ototoxic medications received at any time